Basic Medical Engineering Services in hospital

Basic Medical Engineering Services in hospital can be divided into:

1. Medical Services :

Radiology, Imaging  Rays, MRI, C.T. Scan, Linear Accelerators, Forensic  Labs, Animal Labs
(MEP engineer is not concerned)

2. Infrastructual Hospital  Engineering Services :

  • Refrigeration: Cold Storage, Deep Freezers, Walk-in-Cooler
  • Laundry Services,
  • Fumigation,
  • Hospital Waste handling & Management: Incinerators, Autoclaving, Shredders
  • Dietary Services: Kitchen, Walk-in-cooler for storage, Smoke Exhaust and Ventilation System
  • Mortuary
  • CSSD (Central Stores and Sterilization Department)
  • Medical Gases

3. Electromechanical Supporting Services :

  • Fire Safety and Security Systems
  • HVAC and Basement Ventilation and Smoke Control,
  • Lifts and escalators
  • Signage systems - informative and protective, Exit Signs
  • Water Heating and Cooling systems, Water Supply System, ROs, Water-Softening
  • Steam generators,
  • Substations and Diesel generators as auxiliay power ,UPS and Voltage Stablizers,Isolating Transformers
  • Water treatment plants,
  • Effluent treatment plants (ETP)
  • Sewage Disposal System (STP)

4.  Digital Electronic Support Services :

  • Public Address and Music Systems,
  • EAPBX and Telephone, Trans-receiving and Paging,
  • Fire prevention and fire detection systems,
  • Audio-Visual Display Systems ,
  • Stage lighting and Sound Reinforcement
  • Information Technology Systems: Hospital Management Software (HMS), Tele-Medicine,Electronic patient records, Pay Rolls and academic Records, Clinical Connection Suite
  • Digital Token Display Systems
  • Communication and LAN/WAN and Information Kiosk
  • Cable TV and Video -Transmission
  • Video (Tele-) Conferencing Facilities
  • Access Control and Biometrics Systems
  • CCTV based surveillance Controls

5.  Infrastructural Buildings Supports :

  • Garages,
  • Central Stores,
  • Workshop,
  • Dharmashala, Hotels
  • Banking ,
  • Booking : Airline and Railway
  • Car Parking
  • Shopping Centers
  • Chemist
  •  Furniture
  • Taxis

ISCPl provides Designing, Estimation and Drafting Services all of above services except the first one. The following provides brief details of the design services offered by us:


Fuel Systems

  • Proposed fuel, with justification
  • Estimated monthly and maximum daily fuel consumption
  • Storage of fuel, when applicable
  • Primary source of energy
  • Type of heating, temperatures and pressures
  • Preliminary load and breakdown of main components
  • Provision for future expansion
  • Number and capacity of boilers or heat exchangers
  • Description of boiler and auxiliaries, control and stand-by
  • Schematic diagram
  • Sketch of major operational features and maintenance access

Heating Systems

  • Primary distribution system
  • General description
  • Domestic heating
  • Internal design criteria
  • External design criteria, frequency of use
  • Infiltration rate assumed
  • Heating media, temperature, pressures
  • Preliminary heat load, allowance for future expansion
  • Scheme of circuitry
  • Types of heat emitters in different areas
  • Type of control operation
  • Piping materials, types of pump
  • Area to be heated for each type of heating (m2)
  • Means of absorbing thermal expansion of pipes
  • Feed and expansion provisions
  • Domestic hot water
  • Means of heating
  • Design criteria, storage, maximum demand with time
  • Preliminary storage and heat-up capacity
  • Size of generators, allowance for future expansion
  • Type of piping
  • Type and capacity of cold feed system
  • Steam services (other than for heat or hot water)
  • Locations (e.g., kitchen, laundry, central sterile supply department)
  • Required pressure
  • Criteria for load calculations
  • Preliminary heat load
  • Allowance for extension

Ventilation and Air-conditioning Systems

  • Description of systems (central or split type)
  • Types of fan
  • Areas served by each system
  • Typical circuitry schemes
  • Internal design criteria
  • External design conditions
  • Design criteria for assessing air volumes:
    • supply air temperatures;
    • ventilation to remove heat, moisture, odours, fume~;
    • minimum rates of air change per hour;
    • fresh air and recirculation requirements
  • Number and capacity of fans and air-handling plants
  • Sound levels
  • Control operation and energy conservation
  • Filter types and efficiencies
  • Type of cooling and heat rejection system
  • Type of humidification
  • Design criteria for cooling equipment:
    • ambient conditions for cooling towers, etc. (including frequency if
  • these are exceeded)
    • chilled water temperature
    • condenser water temperatures
  • Preliminary cooling load
  • Allowance for expansion
  • Planning and Design 118
  • Numbers and capacity of cooling and heat rejection plants
  • Air-conditioned area (m2)
  • Ratio of design cooling load: air-conditioned area (W/m2)

Piped Medical Gases services

  • Centralised Supply and Distribution of Oxygen,
  • Respirable Compressed Air,
  • Vacuum and Anethesia Gas (Nitrous Oxide),
  • Scavanging System in O.T's,
  • Liquid Oxygen Station (or Cylinder Banks),
  • Comp. Air and Vacuum Stations.
  • Bed Head Panels and such other Equipments / Accessories.
  • Gases used (e.g., vacuum, compressed air, oxygen)
  • General description of system
  • Allowance for extension
  • Types and capacities of compressors and vacuum pumps
  • Proportion of stand -by plant used


The different types of gases in the hospital (say district) are as follows:

  • Medical Oxygen (O2)
  • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
  • Compressed Air (Oil and moisture free) CA – 7 Kg/cm2
  • Medical Air (Oil and moisture free) CA – 4 Kg/cm2
  • Vacuum System (Vac)


Functional Area

The functional areas of the hospital where in, the Medical gas shall be required shall be as follows:

Operation Theatre

O2, N2O, CA, MA, Vac

Cath Labs

O2, CA, Vac

Intensive Care Beds

O2, CA, Vac

Critical Beds

O2, CA, Vac

Recovery Beds (For cath Labs)

O2, CA, Vac

General Beds

O2, CA, Vac


Following Design Parameters are deployed while designing:

  • Gases used (e.g., vacuum, compressed air, oxygen)
  • General description of system
  • Allowance for extension
  • Types and capacities of compressors and vacuum pumps
  • Proportion of stand -by plant used

Fire Protection system

  • Type of system, coverage and classification
  • Location of control and indicator panels
  • Manual call points, general locations of alerting devices, type and
  • sequence of operation
  • Details of water supply for fire-fighting
  • Dry/wet riser system
  • Special service systems
  • Description and justification of any other service
  • Instrumentation, alarms, monitors and controls
  • General description of scope and philosophy

Electrical Supply and Disribution Design and Estimation

The following is a checklist of those electrical components that is
considered in designing a district hospital. Engineering consultants should be
brought in at a very early stage of the designing process. The practice of consultation among User and other stake holders of the project and with the local electricity supply company and with any necessary
government authorities regarding the mode and system of supplying high- and low-tension electricity to the hospital.

  • Electricity supply
  • Point of mains supply
  • Maximum capacity
  • Supply and incoming voltage
  • Tariffs and metering
  • Agreements with supplying authority
  • Alterations to existing supply
  • General description
  • General description of any existing system (mains and essential
  • services)
  • Technical data on existing installation (maximum capacity, assessed
  • connected loads and measured maximum site demand, cable
  • types, protection methods and discrimination)
  • General description of new system (with load estimates for both
  • essential and non-essential supplies)
  • Local distribution
  • General description of sub-main and sub-circuit system (routes, board
  • locations and area of coverage )
  • Cable types and sub-main load estimates
  • Installation and wiring methods
  • Protection methods and discrimination
  • Earthing
  • Method adopted for each continuity and electrode system


  • Type and accessibility
  • Transformer and switch-gear ratings and type
  • Capacity for increased load, provision for expansion
  • Stand-by plant
  • Type and ratings
  • Capacity for increased load
  • Controls and alarms
  • Sensory circuits and starting
  • Fuel type and stored quantity
  • Provisions for maintenance, including access
  • Distribution boards
  • General description
  • Sub-main or sub-circuit protection
  • Fault rating
  • Capacity for increased load
  • Services supplied (assessed loads and area covered)
  • Special safety and earthing
  • Area, location and classifications
  • Medical procedures carried out and equipment used
  • Type of protection chosen, with justification
  • Known major equipment, with assessed loads (e.g., kitchen and laundry
  • equipment, autoclaves, mechanical services plant, medical
  • equipment)
  • Typical location and numbers of plug sockets, including number per
  • circuit
  • Connections to essential supply, with load estimate
  • Hazardous areas and provisions proposed

Interior lighting

  • Area classifications
  • Illumination levels
  • Anti-glare design
  • Types of fittings (surface, suspended, concealed)
  • Lamp type and colour
  • System data: mounting height, hours in use, reflectance
  • Estimated connected load and load per circuit
  • Connections to essential services with estimated loads

Exterior Lighting

  • Areas served and purpose
  • Type of fitting
  • Control and wiring method, including routes
  • Lightning protection
  • Need
  • Design criteria
  • Description of proposed design
  • Planning and Design 123
  • Communications
  • Justification for each type of area
  • Type of system
  • Areas served
  • Wiring method
  • Other features and safety considerations, like call systems,
  • intercommunication systems, fire alarm systems and other special installations
  • may be included as required in the design and computations for the total electric
  • power requirements.

Emergency Electrical Services

All hospitals should have a reliable alternative source of power, in addition to the normal electrical service, for emergency lighting, for operation of essential equipment, and for the safety of its occupants.
The alternative source should be from:

  • a generator, when the normal service is supplied from one or more central transmission lines, or
  • an emergency generating set or a central transmission line, when the normal supply is generated on the premises.

The emergency generating set, including the prime mover, should be located
on the premises, away from the operating department and the ward block. It
should be reserved exclusively for supplying electricity in an emergency. The
recommended circuits to which power should be provided are:

For Lighting:

  • all exits, including exit signs, stairways and corridors
  • surgical, obstetrical and emergency room operating lights
  • nursery, laboratory, recovery room, intensive care unit, nursing station, labour room and pharmacy
  • generator set location, electrical switch-gear location and boiler room
  • one or two lifts, if needed for emergency
  • telephone operator's room
  • computer room, when available Equipment
  • nurses' call system
  • alarm system, including fire alarm
  • fire pump and pump for central suction system
  • blood bank refrigerator
  • sewerage or sump lift pump, if installed
  • equipment necessary for maintaining telephone service
  • equipment in operating, recovery, intensive care and delivery rooms
  • one electrical sterilizer, if installed

For Heating, Cooling and Ventilation System

  • Operating rooms,
  • Delivery,
  • Labour,
  • Recovery,
  • Intensive care unit ( ICU and ICCUs)
  • Nurseries and
  • Patient rooms
  • Catscans
  • MRI and X-Rays
  • Blood bank
  • Burns Ward

The capacity of the emergency generating set should be 50-60% of the
normal electrical load of the hospital, to maintain the minimum level of services.

The emergency electrical system should be so controlled that, after
interruption of the normal electric power supply, the generator brings full voltage
and frequency within 10 seconds to all the emergency lighting and equipment
listed above. Lights powered by storage batteries can be provided to augment the
emergency lighting during the period of transfer switching, immediately following
the interruption of normal service; however, these should not be used to substitute
for the generator set.

Nurse Call System

 When a patient needs medical attention, nurses could be anywhere on the unit or in the hospital. The Nurse Call system enables instant access to nurses via a one touch dial back using a wireless phone. The on-phone screen tells the nurse who is calling. A configurable escalation system sends calls to alternate staff if a nurse is unavailable.
Patient Monitoring: This comprises multiple patient monitoring systems using wireless phones to receive alerts from patients. The integrated screen on these phones can display text and waveform alerts with information such as cardiac status and vital signs. This allows doctors to maintain a closer watch on patient monitors while performing their duties throughout the facility.
Location-Based Services: Imagine a missing wheelchair or IV pump when you need one, leading to valuable time getting wasted and patients becoming frustrated. Location-based services use RFID technology to keep track of equipment within a facility. The system continually monitors device locations. One can locate anything in moments using the map-based interface on a nearby PC screen.
Collaborative Care: Collaborative care systems use videoconferencing technologies to interconnect teams of experts on demand, leading to better decisions and more effective care. First responders can help emergency room nurses assemble triage teams prior to arrival. Doctors across the campus or the country can review information instantly.
Source: Cisco


Tele-consultation and remote-patient-monitoring is taking a big leap in India to integrate the fragmented healthcare industry. The technology of treating patients while the patient and doctor are geographically distant is best suited for the Indian healthcare scenario, where cost and accessibility of quality care for a section of society is still a big question.

Dr Singh explains, “In a number of medical cases, for instance in case of an epileptic patient, where direct contact with the specialist is not required, telemedicine can ensure the treatment of the patient in a remote location with a regular doctor as a mediator between the patient and the specialist. With more than 60 to 70 percent of India’s population residing in rural villages and 90 percent of specialists and super specialists residing in urban areas, telemedicine can revolutionise the way we treat patients in remote areas.”

Telemedicine is now an integral part of healthcare services in many countries. Once the virtual presence of a specialist is acknowledged, a patient can access resources in a tertiary referral centre without the constraint of distance. Ambulance drivers using a GPS in a palmtop can quickly reach an accident site. Automated voice message (AVM) systems could be used as an adjunct to primary care for diabetic patients. An AVM monitoring protocol can inquire about a patient’s glucose, diet and medication. Patients have the option to listen to health promotion messages. Hand-held Simputers are being used by midwives and public health nurses in pilot projects in India.

With technology’s position changing from being a support crutch to a business driver, healthcare has a lot to gain. If all organisations in this field realise this fact, India will soon be among the best in terms of healthcare services.
Hospitals have hundreds of visitors. They come to see friends and family, while ambulances bring in those who are ill or need emergency care. With all of these people coming and going, hospitals need to insure the safety of patients and staff. CCTV systems integrate with your access control system to monitor the people coming and going from hospitals, as well as those people accessing certain secure areas.

Additionally, CCTV systems are able to provide safety to visitors in hospital parking lots and parking garages.
It is imperative that people in hospitals have a reason to be there. Likewise, only authorized individuals should enter certain wards, laboratories, or pharmacies. CCTV and access control systems allow hospital security personnel to monitor individuals in these sensitive areas.

A variety of criminal activities have taken place in hospitals. For instance, infant abduction is not uncommon. The visitor often accesses the hospital through the controlled areas, but escape by utilizing an unauthorized area. CCTV and access control systems are able to allow security to monitor any visitor in these unauthorized parts.

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